Head injuries are a common type of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Head injuries can range from mild to severe, depending on the incident and the extent of any damage to the brain. Signs and symptoms of a head injury include bruises and bleeding, confusion, dizziness, headaches, nausea, slurred speech, loss of balance and coordination, and coma.
Head injuries are caused by a variety of external forces, such as falls, motor vehicle accidents, sports-related trauma, and assaults. The most common head injuries are concussions, which are caused by a direct or indirect blow to the head, ligamentous injuries, skull fractures, and intracranial injuries.
Immediate medical attention should be sought if any of the following signs or symptoms of a head injury are present: loss of consciousness, repeated vomiting or nausea, seizures or convulsions, confusion or disorientation, slurred speech, persistent or worsening headaches, or any signs of neck pain or stiffness.
Treatment for a head injury may include medications to reduce pain or swelling, rest, and sometimes surgery. Physical therapy, speech therapy, and other forms of rehabilitation can also be beneficial to the recovery of most head injuries.